amount of energy needed during the night – Global Homework Experts

  1. Calculation part

Determine the amount of energy needed during the night with and without the smart function detection and directional illumination activated

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1). Determine the illuminated area (oval or near rectangular) according to road lighting standards → Determine the light density, calculate the energy to be consumed and thus determine the required LED operating power.


2)Based on geographical location and winter solar energy availability profile, determine the size and orientation of a PV panel to provide the minimum energy.

Data source:

Location: Nottingham

Seasonsummer and winter

Slope of the penal: 30-45-75 in each season(compare)


  1. PLECS part:

Existing circuit exists, need to add “power reference“ at the arrow.

Data source:

what need to show is that indeed over this 24 seconds get  simulate probably a winter day.

you will have a day like light for only stay 8 hours.

And over these seven hours, you need to show that you could capture enough energy to make sure that you could supply the LED light bulb with reasonably amount of power

could assume that the load goes  on off, on, off,  50% duty cycle from let’s say 5:00 PM.

The load about 9:00 PM then from 9:00 PM, the duty cycle reduces or actually you can have the the from 5:00 PM to 9:00 PM could be fully on from 9:00 PM to about 12:00 PM to to about midnight. It will be 50%. Then from midnight to about five M can be let’s say 20% duty cycle.

On off, on, off, then from 5:00 AM again goes. Let’s say to 50 or 70% duty cycle and then when the the sun rises it shuts down.

So that assumes a a smart way of detecting human presence that turns LED’s on and off, and after salination, and then you may have another situation where you either look for some abnormal conditions where you could say, well, I had a cloudy day. I did not receive enough energy in my PV and now you you could. It comes 5:00 PM time when you have a sun disappears.

3.Arduino part

Types of Arduino: UNO

Functions to be achieved:

1.Using photoresistors and programs to design: through the external environment light intensity changes to change the brightness of the LED, (the weaker the external light the higher the LED brightness), the reason for the selection of photoresistors.

Types of led: HW321A  Quantity: 3

Types o Types of photoresistor:GL5537-2

  1. Activated when the presence of a moving person is detected using an ultrasonic sensor, and the light gradually intensifies as the person approaches.

Types of ultrasonic: HC-SR04


The presence of a buck converter is required at design time to control the current (project requirement)



The Final Project Report

is the main method of assessment for the project. It should include summary, contents, introduction, and main chapters describing the project work, discussion, conclusions, references and appendices. The Project report should be written for a reader who is technically competent, but who is not necessarily expert in the field of study. Your supervisor will not have time to make major corrections to the style and structure of the thesis before final submission, so you should discuss the structure of the thesis with your supervisor before starting to write it. The thesis must be no more than 80 pages, on un-punched A4 paper. The text should be double-spaced and on one side of the paper only. The most suitable font is Times Roman 12pt. A margin of 2.5 cm must be left on the left-hand side of each page of typing for binding. A similar margin should be used on the right-hand side. Graphs, photographs and illustrations may either be inserted into the text at the nearest appropriate point (as they are in a text book for example) or may appear on separate sheets in between the text pages. Diagrams should be properly labelled for each chapter e.g. Figure 3.1 is the first diagram in chapter 3), and neatly drawn (hand drawing is acceptable although computer drawn diagrams and figures generally look better). Graphs and oscillograms must have labelled axes with given scales. References should be referred to in the text at appropriate points using numbers in square brackets. Students who fail to meet these layout guidelines will have marks deducted. A reference list with the appropriate numbers should be given at the end of the thesis. The examples below (the first for a book, the second for a paper – essentially following IEEE guidelines) give typical styles for references that you should employ: [ 1 ] N . M o h a n , T , U n d e r l a n d a n d W . R o b b i ns , P o w e r E l e c t r o n i c s : Converters Application and Design. New York, Wiley, 1996. [2] Alesina A. and Venturini M.G.B., “Analysis and Design of Optimum-Amplitude Nine-Switch Direct AC-AC Converters”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Vol. 4 .No.1. , January 1989, pp101-112. References for websites are more difficult due to their transient nature. Often, material obtained from websites (copies of academic papers, extracts from books etc.) can also be obtained in printed form. In such cases a reference to the archival (i.e. permanent) source must be given. In other cases, where the material is only available on the web, the reference should follow the IEEE recommended practice, which can be found at the following web address: Make sure that you differentiate between a reference list (papers/books etc. from which you have obtained specific information/facts that you wish to refer to) and a bibliography (a general reading list not referred to specifically in the text). Most theses should have a reference list; the bibliography is optional. Appendices should be used for information, mathematical derivations etc. which are required for completeness, but which would disrupt the main flow of the thesis if placed in the main text. Appendices should be denoted with a letter (Appendix A, Appendix B etc.) and should be referred to in the main text. Any appendix that is not referred to is clearly unnecessary. You must not use any text or figures from other sources in your thesis without giving a proper reference. Failure to give proper reference to such material constitutes plagiarism and will be reported to the University Academic Misconduct Committee (see section 4.5). This applies particularly (but not solely) to material obtained from the WWW or that scanned electronically from other sources. The length of the complete thesis, including diagrams and appendices, should not exceed 80 pages. Every sheet except for the title page must be numbered consecutively in the top right hand corner. Students who exceed 80 pages may lose marks for presentation due to unnecessary length. Similarly, inappropriate “padding” of the thesis will not receive credit and will detract from the parts that do deserve credit. Software listings should not be included in the thesis either in the main body, or as an appendix. Software design, algorithms etc. can be illustrated and explained in the thesis using “pseudo-code” or flow-diagrams or some other appropriate “high-level” description. They should, however, be uploaded to the “Additional files” box on Moodle. Data sheets should not be included in the thesis for standard parts (logic ICs, op-amps, comparators etc.). Data sheets should only be included if reference to the data sheet is necessary for the reader to understand some aspect of the thesis. This will normally only be when you have used an unusual or difficult to source part, and/or where using the part is a major aspect of your work. In such cases, the data sheet should be placed in an appendix and must be referred to in the appropriate part of the text. Tables of experimental results should only be included if this information is not being presented graphically, and should be placed in an Appendix. The first sheet of the final report should adhere to the template that will be provided in the appendix of this handbook, and must include your full name, student number and the name of your supervisor.