A smart off-grid standalone street lighting post with embedded energy storage and photovoltaic energy capture
Sub-area: – electronic circuits, power converters, programming
Nature of project –mixed (simulation+construct&build)
Relevant modules in Year 2: H62ECC Electrical Energy Conditioning and Control, H62PEP Practical Engineering Design Project (Power)
Relevant modules in Year 3: Power Electronic Applications and Control
Distinctive skills to be gained as a result of the project: electronic circuit design building and testing.
Project description: Street lighting is widely used today to provide illumination of roads and footpaths enhancing therefore safety. In order to reduce its energy consumption, LED technology has been rolled out due to higher efficiency and significantly longer lifetime which translates into less maintenance and lower energy consumption. In remote locations where connection to a power grid is unavailable, the system can rely on capturing renewable energy such as using a PV panel that can be stored in a battery but reducing the PV and battery size may need a further reduction of the energy consumption. This is possible by making the lamp post smarter by using proximity sensors to detect the approach of a person or vehicle, use directional LEDs and to embed the battery of an appropriate size.
The system will consist of an appropriately sized PV panel to provide the required energy, a battery to store the energy to when this is needed, and a directional 3 section LED system to provide a directional and meaningful amount of street lighting during the night. In order to make its operation smarter., it may include an ultrasonic sensor to detect people or vehicles approaching and change illumination level on the direction of approach depending on if there are people/vehicles on the road and also if the ambient lighting changes (dawn/ sunset).
Project Aims: This project will investigate the implementation of a standalone smart street lighting system that can use renewable energy and adapt its illumination level according to ambient conditions and have the following functionality:
- Determine the amount of energy needed during the night with and without the smart function detection and directional illumination activated
- Based on geographical location and winter solar energy availability profile, determine the size and orientation of a PV panel to provide the minimum energy
- Store the energy that needs to be used by LEDs to produce light during a power failure
- Embed a dedicated circuit to enable state of charge monitoring and appropriate charging of the batteries
- Embed sensors and appropriate electronics to detect ambient lighting levels and activate the particular LED section by using dynamic illumination depending on background lighting and direction of travellers
- Embed a motion detector and the appropriate electronics to activate or to provide higher illumination if the presence of a moving person is detected.
Project Objectives: 1) Review relevant datasheets, illumination standards and research papers for relevant technologies for storage, PV energy capturing and LED illuminsation;
2) Implement test circuits for each of the subcircuits for basic functionalities C-F.
3) Implement a supervisory control using a microcontroller (Arduino) or a programmable logic device (i.e. Xilinx) to implement full system operation
Type of bench table needed: electronic construction and evaluation